Category: Computer & Technology

Staying Connected During Power Outages

Technology practically runs our lives. Think about it; when is the last time you did anything that did not involve some type of technological help? It is all around us, from our transportation, to our communication, and we even use it for gaining our necessities. There are very few ways our societies nowadays could function without help from the technology we use every day. What would happen if the technology were to suddenly stop working? Our roads would shut down, our food would expire, and we would not be able to effectively communicate with friends or those who could help us. We would be helpless without it. On a much smaller scale, what would happen at the workplace if power was lost? Important work could be deleted, communications with customers could be interrupted, and other unfavorable outcomes. That would directly affect your relationship with your customers and slow down your progress exponentially. What if there was a way to have reliable backup power, so work could be saved and everyone in the workplace could still make progress on their work even if the power shuts off? Power outages can be a huge back step while trying to satisfy the needs of your customers. Thankfully, there is a way to have the backup power you need to keep moving! Tech Connect is here to help you keep progressing even when technology is not on your side!

Tech Connect will help give you a reliable power supply when your first source of power stops working. One of our most helpful products for these scenarios is called a UPS. A UPS, or an uninterruptible power supply is a machine that provides emergency power to a load when the main power source fails. UPS systems provide uninterruptible protection from input power interruptions, unlike your sometimes unreliable first source of power. A UPS is used to protect valuable hardware including computer systems, data centers, telecom equipment and other critical power components. The UPS is used to protect critical loads from power problems, including spikes, voltage dips, fluctuations and complete power failures using a dedicated battery. Even with reliable and competent workers, a UPS is needed to ensure that your company can keep going if your first power supply fails. If you can’t afford to lose time, power, or money, you can’t afford not to have a UPS. Especially with businesses who work with lots of numbers or calculations, losing data could be a major problem in the workplace. Come to Tech Connect and get a UPS to save your business today!

Technology Has Introduce Samsung Pay vs Apple Pay New Trends

Samsung pay vs Apple Pay
Both payment options are easily available nowadays. These are basically payment options by using your smartphone that make mobile payments possible in a most secured way. The difference between Samsung and Apple pay is technology. If we talk about the first one, specifically used for Samsung devices, it works on MST technology. This technology is used for all Android devices. Its biggest competitor in the market when we compare it with apple group which is used for Apple devices through IOS technology.

IOS just reinvented a new methodology of paying at the spot without any cash which is very popular among users. By using your smartphone just you need to download the app and get the login id along with an 8 digit password. For sure this is one of the most secure methods and one can make it more secure, by taking different options in the category of password options like face detection and fingerprint privacy technique. There is no hard and fast formula to adopt it because it’s very easy with only a few steps to add a card to your payment account.

The account being used for a payment option whether it’s a Samsung or Apple account, mostly it is available through your respective bank. By using your smartphone to pay for all kinds of products and other purchases through this payment option, it is like a simple, fast and secure option. This payment option even more secure than having a credit card option. For a credit card, you have a specific card number that can be traced or can be hacked when you will give it to your waiter or another person for bills payment.

Types of technologies used for payment methods
Modern means are increasing day by day and improvement can be seen in the form of latest technological reforms being provided by different mobile companies. Here we are going to discuss some of the key features of Samsung pay technology and apple technology. We have mentioned above clearly that Samsung group majorly works on android system and apple group used IOS technology.
When we talk about payment methods, basically two latest technologies are used by these two major groups which are – MST Technology (Magnetic Secure Transmission) and NFC Technology.

The first one is basically an older scheme for payment options but still used for most of the devices and is quite useful also. MST stands for “magnetic secure transmission,” and only used by Samsung phones. In past, MST was quite famous for its mobile payment methods. We will try to explain the complete functions and methodology on which it works which is very simple and smooth. This technology involves a tiny metal coil fixed into a loop. When electricity passes through the coil, it creates a magnetic field that can make it possible to talk to the standard magnetic credit card being provided by any banking institution or from a private firm.
One can also take the services of a bank to used Samsung or Apple pay options.

SEO Trends in 2019

We are closing in on 2019 now and many companies are checking the trends that are going to make a difference to them with the close of 2018 looming. To be on top of your game in the SEO world, you need to think about your SEO strategy before you need it. You’re currently working on the strategy for 2018, but 2019 is a mere six weeks away.

One of the biggest shortcuts for success is getting to know the trends that are ahead for your business. In 2018, Google did the thing that Google does and shook up the world, except this time it did it with the mobile and speed related efforts that it put in for the year. This means that most of the SEO efforts next year are going to be in this direction. Some of the game-changers that don’t surround Google are worth noting, though, and these will still influence you and the way that you build your SEO campaign for the year. Below, you’ll find three SEO trends that are looking to matter the most in 2019.

Indexing & Ranking For Mobile
Loosely translated, this means that mobile-first indexing will use the mobile version of your business webpage for indexing and ranking. Search Console may have already notified you about the fact that Google began the process of migrating all sites to a mobile-first index back in March 2018, but it should be noted that a mobile-first index doesn’t mean that you will use mobile-only. It just means that Google will use the mobile versions of ranking when the sites have migrated.

Page Speed
One of the biggest considerations for user experience is the fast delivery of any website, and the loading time of your desktop page has been a ranking factor for some time now. In July, it became apparent that mobile page speeds became a popular ranking factor for mobile, too. This means that there needs to be an understanding which of the metrics matter the most for Google when it comes to page speed evaluation. For optimization, you need to control it by fixing any issues that prevent your website from loading quickly.

Your Brand
Google uses online brand mentions in the search algorithm, and there are a couple of ways that it can be used as a brand ranking signal:
● Unlinked brand mentions means that the search engine learns your brand is an entity.
● Sentiment and content matters. With context, Google can tell the good from the bad.
Backlinks count massively, so they have to be strong whether you are a white-hat business or not. You need to cater to your reputation and address the customer with your brand.

There are, of course, more than three ahead for businesses, but while things in the mobile world are accelerating at a rapid rate, we have to look at what Amazon and the consequences of GDPR. Map your SEO strategy now, and you can be set and ready for 2019!

On Demand Freelance Marketplace For Field Engineers

Maintaining the health of the IT and Telecom facilities is a priority for all modern businesses, and yours isn’t any different. Therefore, taking advantage of every opportunity within this crucial business arena is absolutely vital. Using contractors has been a growing trend for several years, and FieldEngineer makes the process easier than you ever thought possible.

Here’s all you need to know about the whats, hows, and whys of choosing this modern approach to filling telecom positions.

The term ‘gig economy’ is one that ultimately describes the concept of using contractors and freelancers for temporary employment rather than using standard permanent employment options. While this can be used in various areas of business, it is particularly useful for projects relating to IT and telecommunications.

Using the gig economy brings many benefits compared to traditional employment, including;

● Engage with local and global talent through remote communication

● Team up with experts when needed, avoiding wasting staffing funds as well as bypassing the legal obligations associated with recruiting permanent staff

● Make the recruitment process faster and easier

● Hire a specialist with a specific project in mind rather than ongoing works that may require a range of related skills

● Save on traditional advertising

● Get what you pay for, by paying for the job rather than the timescale, which motivates technicians to work efficiently

By using FieldEngineer for your IT and telecommunications projects, you’ll be connected to a network of over 37,000 experienced engineers and techs. Each of those specialists is fully qualified and ready to provide fast service that adheres to the very highest standards.

The gig economy has changed the world of recruitment, particularly temporary recruitment, forever. When it comes to IT and telecommunications, is the only service you’ll ever need.

How to Promote Your Business

With the emergence of the Internet and social media platforms with the audience of thousands and thousands of people, the concept of crowd marketing is seemingly a better marketing solution for a lot of companies.

What is Crowd Marketing?

A popular marketing technique in which a business connects to an influencer, who is in direct contact with the target market of the product that the business is marketing. The proliferation of social media networks including the Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Google plus and many other, crowd marketing has gained increased popularity among marketers as being a cheap, effective and the easiest way to reach target consumer. Unlike many other marketing strategies, the target market reach of can be monitored in terms of measurable indicators such as likes, shares, reviews, retweets, feedbacks etc. In essence, crowd marketing techniques are focused on increasing website traffic, lifting search engine rank and strengthening the brand position. The main difference between techniques like Social Media Marketing (SMM), Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and the crowded marketing technique is that the later technique directly approaches to target consumers rather than focusing on the general public. One of the good examples of crowd marketing may be the celebrity endorsement technique. In this technique, a business identifies celebrities that already have a large fan base among the target market niche of the business; the business pays the celebrity to endorse its product among its target consumers. It is an effective way because people tend to be influenced by celebrities, their lifestyles and what they recommend. Such marketing technique is also used to approach the target market directly as long as the influencing celebrity personality, as well as his fan base among the target market population, are properly selected.

Crowd Marketing Techniques

The most popular techniques most recently rely on the social media platform and utilize the power of content marketing to enhance target market reach. Since social media has become an integral part of people’s lives, one of the most effective platforms is Facebook, which has over 1,500 million active users. Targeting Facebook as a platform to reach the target market has been popular these days. The technique is straightforward –leveraging content marketing method to attract the target market population among Facebook users. In this method, the business creates a compelling content, mostly product or brand-related videos, and finds an effective way to publish it over the Facebook that will ensure most return on investment. Usually, celebrity pages, celebrity accounts where many people keep their attention and the paid advertisement that is boosted by the Facebook to help reach increased customer base are utilized as crowd marketing technique over the Facebook. The number of likes, shares, and comments can be used as a measure of the success of the campaign. The most effective way to reach target market is to utilize the key influence of the business niche. Identifying target consumers, their behaviors and whom or what they follow can make the difference. If the key influencer of the target audience can be identified and can be used to endorse the product or brand, the success of convincing the audience about the reliability and superiority of the business goes higher.

The Power of Social Media

Another effective technique that warrants success is to use tools that help the business with key insights of the marketing as related to social and content marketing wings of crowd marketing. For example, few web applications help the business identify the target audience of a product, their key influencer, their position and location within web domain and provides with the best crowd marketing strategy starting from content recommendation to target markets locating. These tools make implementation of your marketing strategies easier and more effective.

The Lego Group, children’s toy builder company, has been leveraging the concept of crowd marketing since the 90’s; it has used the Internet effectively to transform website traffic into effective customers and revenues. The key idea to engage target customers from around the world is novel and simple – it asks toy builders and idea-makers to share their ideas about new toys. These ideas are published on the website and are open to million enthusiastic audiences. Any builder can upload his unique design built out of the combination of thousands of different block pieces. The models are placed to audiences for marking and the models that get highest marks are chosen for the award. Moreover, the company uses fans’ ideas and models to build its toys from. Recently, it has created builds from the theme of the movie “Star Wars” and “Lord of the Rings”, which are the most popular builds from the company for years. The company has been adopting social media-based marketing campaign to increase its audience reach and enhance revenues. Last year, the company has earned about $4 trillion in revenue, most of which can be attributed to the crowd marketing strategy. Crowd marketing has also enabled it to become a global brand. The success of the company may be set as an example for all businesses who wish to adopt crowd marketing strategies.

Fully Meshed Or Single Broadband Wi-Fi Router For Business?

There’s no doubt that broadband choices are integral to the performance of any business nowadays. You can’t get far if you and your staff aren’t able to connect to the internet. When all you really want is good Wi-Fi speed that delivers what you need, however, you can quickly end up being blinded by science.

One of big issue for businesses in recent times is whether a meshed Wi-Fi or a single broadband Wi-Fi router system is best. A lot will depend on the number of people you have working for you and where your business is located.

To help, here’s our run down of what the pros and cons are for each type of Wi-Fi system.

The Single Broadband Wi-Fi Router

This is what we generally see in our own homes and works perfectly well for small offices and businesses where there are few users who are collected together in the same space. If you are creating a start-up and have decided to work from home for your business, a single router should be fine. Even in a small office, it should suffice perfectly well.

In the past, many home owners and home businesses with poor coverage used Wi-Fi extenders and these can still work pretty well in many circumstances. If you have dead zones in your property, however, you may like to introduce mesh-networking technology to provide full access to everyone, wherever they happen to be standing or sitting.

Fully Meshed Wi-Fi Networks

The problem you get with a single broadband Wi-Fi router is its reach. The reason we only have the single router in our homes is because it only needs to cover a few rooms at most and less than an acre of ground.

With your business, you may have hundreds of square metres of space where everyone needs to have the same quality Wi-Fi access.

A fully meshed Wi-Fi system uses a system of radio nodes to ensure that anyone with a Wi-Fi enabled device within the property can easily connect. That means anyone can set up anywhere in your office or work area, with any device, and access the broadband connection. They don’t have to walk closer to a single broadband Wi-Fi router to get a stronger signal or worry about how many people are online.

One big benefit of a meshed Wi-Fi network is that it works from a single network, so you don’t have to have separate routers with different passwords to meet your business needs. There is no single failure point and, as long as you have the initial broadband router working, you should expect even coverage across the whole network.

This automatically gives you better coverage than with a standard single broadband Wi-Fi router. The other big benefit of a meshed network is that it is scalable – you can grow it or shrink depending on your needs.

One issue you will need to take into account, however, is the cost. A meshed network is going to come at a higher price than a single broadband router. Overall, however, if you have a sizeable office space or are suffering from dead zones in your business, the benefits of a meshed system far outweigh the disadvantages. They are relatively easy to set up and can be tailored to meet your business needs exactly.

Create Your Own Forum With This New Private Communities Platform

Creating your own forum has now become much easier with the launch of the platform ArmorForums. It is suitable for any kind of community whether you want to start dialogs, vote for ideas, connect with your clients, team, community or friends. The website allows you to create a private discussion forum which you can manage and control with ease.

ArmorForums is not starting a new kind of service on the market. There are a lot of websites providing online forum services for free, so this platform has a lot of competitors already filling the “make a forum website” niche. What makes this application different is that the forum you create is private. This means that users without registration can not read the contents of the forum. And you can further secure your online community by tweaking the settings and permissions. The ArmorForums software provides different scenarios for the joining of new members. You can configure the registration to specific people, approve new members, invite users by email and other specifications.

For the content posting functionality, the forum has a very well separated and convenient structure. The main blocks at the top of all posts are the categories. They are the foundation items which would categorize large groups of content. After that you can organize different boards into each category to further sort the posts. In the boards users can create their own threads, which are the main content of any forum. Inside them, replies are posted to discuss and provide opinion for the main topic. This kind of forum structure provides a lot of flexibility and separation for different related content.

To fight competitors, the free version of ArmorForums provides a lot of value with its limitations. Usually the forum websites limit the amount of members, pageviews, threads, etc. As you can imagine this can awfully undermine the entire forum use for you and your users. With the free plan of ArmorForums the only limits will be on the number of categories and boards you can create in your forum website. The users won’t be limited in any way to join the forum, browse and post new content.

To remove the ads and limitations of the free plan you can subscribe to the premium plan. The payment methods available are flexible with banking card or PayPal account which will be automatically billed every month. At any given time you will be able to cancel your subscription (billing cycle) and prevent any further charges. The payments dashboard provides detailed information about the subscription and monthly PDF invoice downloads.

A Decision Making Tool For Making Wiser Decisions In Better Ways

Crowds are not necessarily wise; nor are they necessarily evil. The internet has ways of connecting us in virtual crowds that can bring out the best and the worst of groupthink. Chris Hedges in Death of the Liberal Class refers us to Jason Lanier’s warnings about digital collectivism and its ability to erode good thinking, innovation, and honest journalism. Lanier also warns about the internet’s capacity for crowd manipulation, for reducing us to clans, pitting one against the other.
These are real dangers.

But the Internet also has the potential to connect us in healthy ways. The problem is, those tools have not fully been developed yet and they need to be if we are going to be intentional about creating the structures that will inevitably inform the way we think, interact and interpret our world.

On the one hand, we have systems (of economics, of decision making, of policy making) that do not serve or benefit the vast majority of human beings on this planet, or any other species for that matter. Also, we have countless networks of people who are working hard to design new tools and new lenses for interpreting our world. As these networks connect to each other and gain enough power and visibility to threaten the dominant structures, we will see their repression in subtle and sometimes brutal ways. This is inevitable. And it makes it all the more necessary that we have the tools to give us the capacity to connect with each other, and to align our shared intentions in ways that will most effectively enable us to achieve our goal of a world that is healthier and more just.

Ethelo is a software tool that uses the Internet and social media technology to help mobilize collective human intention for effective decision making. It offers a way of tapping into a growing proliferation of voices (such as those, most notably, within the Occupy movement)—voices that are longing for and demanding changes in the “corporatic” systems of governance that currently dominate, suppress, oppress and blind us to even the possibility that there could be other ways of doing economy, politics, decision making, civic engagement, food, housing, etc. It offers a means by which these growing networks for social change can listen to each other, influence each other and finally, align with each other on key initiatives and strategies for effecting change.

Ethelo was developed by Vancouver based lawyer, mathematician and passionate advocate for social justice, John Richardson. In 2000 John founded an innovative and highly regarded non profit organization called Pivot Legal Society which works to change laws so they are fairly applied to marginalized people, rather than consistently favoring privilege. In 2005, he was inducted as an Ashoka Fellow for his work. John has now turned his talent and vision for social justice to creating software which enables communities and organizations to make robust decisions that provide for the greatest satisfaction and the greatest equality among all constituents.

Ethelo can be used wherever there are complex decisions which need to be made by communities or organizations of any size who value or require consensus in the decision making process. Traditional representative democracy inevitably excludes, disconnects and dissatisfies a significant percentage of our population. Ethelo offers a flexible, scalable means of enabling fairer, more inclusive decisions, and it offers a way of mobilizing the collective will of large groups of people, who have, until now, been left out of the public consultation process despite a strong desire to make a positive difference in local and global issues.

Ethelo offers the means by which the 99% can finally align their voices and their agenda to bring about justice and real democracy in a world that is literally crying out for it.

How to Transfer Spotify Playlist to Apple Music

More and more iPhone and Android users is switching from Spotify to Apple Music to enjoy its fantastic features since this great tool is launched. However, scores of people are stuck in transferring playlist from Spotify to Apple music, which makes “Spotify to Apple Music” a hot topic on the Internet. To settle this headachy problem, this passage summarizes some efficient solutions to transfer Spotify songs to Apple Music.
Option 1: Transfer Spotify Playlist to Apple Music with Houdini

To transfer Spotify to Apple Music, using a third party application is necessary. Houdini, which is specially designed to transfer songs from Spotify to Apple Music on iOS device, is one of the most reliable ones among similar apps, and it is priced at $2.99.

1.Download Houdini and launch it on your iPhone.
2.Select “Spotify” in the “Export From “Screen”, and allow Houdini to open “Spotify”.
3.In the “Import To” screen, choose “Apple Music”. Then click “OK” to authorize this app to access Apple Music.
4.Select the playlist you want to transfer and wait Houdini to match your songs.
5.Finally, tap on “Start Transfer Process” to transfer your Spotify playlist to Apple Music.

Option 2: Export Spotify Playlist to Apple Music with SongShift

SongShift is also a good choice to export Spotify Playlist to Apple Music. In addition to Spotify and Apple Music, it also supports various services like Deezer, Discogs, HypeMachine, LastFM, Napster, Pandora, Tidal and YouTube.

1.Install this app and open it. Then click “Begin New Shift”.
2.Choose the Soptify as source and login your account as promoted.
3.Select the playlist you want to transfer.
4.Finally, choose to add it to an existing playlist in Apple music or create a new one.

Note: You can only transfer up to 100 songs with the free version, and you will have to pay $3.99 if you want to transfer more.

Option 3: Move from Spotify to Apple Music on Android

Since Houdini and SongShift are available for iOS devices only, how to move Spotify playlist to Apple Music on Android? Don’t worry. There is another excellent Spotify to Apple Music converter named Soundiiz, and it is compatible with Android devices.

1.Download and install Soundiiz on your device.
2.Open this app after installation is completed and choose “Platform to Platform”.
3.Select “Spotify” as your source platform and login your account.
4.Choose one playlist you want to transfer.
5.Set “Apple Music” as destination platform, and then your playlist will be transferred.

Are You Making The Best Use Of Your Investments?

Technology across the board, be it the wheel or the light bulb, has had one universal benefit to business: the increase of productivity. This is why economists track Total Factor Productivity (abbreviated TFP is the portion of output not explained by the amount of inputs used in production. As such, its level is determined by how efficiently and intensely the inputs are utilized in production) to get a better understanding of what technology enables. We do, however, often make the mistake of fixating on a specific technology itself rather than what it enables us to do. A simple example: Google is a search engine that has made it easier for us to find information; it has improved productivity beyond what is obvious – it’s easier to find a research paper, a directory listing, or a book review. Gone are the yellow pages of yore; one can now find that data on her finger tips. We are now free to use the time we would have used looking for the book/restaurant on more productive ventures such as reading the book/eating the food. This is what technology does; it frees us up to be able to better pursue our passions.

I’ll expound on the previous paragraph by giving a few real world use cases.
Let’s take the example of a restaurant, which is in the business of serving food. Depending on what the owner wants to achieve, technology may or may not add value to the operations of the restaurant. Let’s imagine that the restaurant is a lifestyle business, whose owner’s objective is to not only offer good food but also to converse with the clients and to offer them a way to pass time. Such a business has it’s niche in the fact that it doesn’t heavily adopt technology but rather that it is relationship based and hangs on to the traditional ways of interacting with people, provides a unique ambiance with no wifi, etc. The owner gets real feedback from regular clients during their visits. Custom meals for diners are possible as there’s no fixed menu per se. “Adopting” artificial intelligence (AI) offers them no value. This is very different from a restaurant that aims to be a global food chain; for them, usage patterns allow them to use tools such as AI to better model stock control (what’s the order quantity of milk that allows it to be fresh but at the same time ensuring that there is little waste), model customer satisfaction, model the impact of menu changes, etc. In the latter restaurant’s case, technology is key to the survival of the business. Technology is not a “one-size-fits-all.” This is what technologists should always keep in mind – the utility of the technology is more important than the quality of the technology.

Technology, ultimately, should help businesses rethink their workflows and operating models, allowing them to generate more revenue or save on cost. It should act as one of the oldest pieces of technology continues to -the lever – which provides a way to get more work done with less effort. A professional services firm can re-think its communication setup; if phone extensions can be virtual and workspaces can be virtual, why have fixed desks for the users? Why have fixed working locations? We only get the benefiits of the technology not when we adopt it but when we use it to re-think your business processes.

In the early 1900s, when electricity became pervasive many companies realized that there was an immediate competitive advantage in replacing their dirty coal-fired steam engines with the cleaner electric motors. However, it took them a much longer time, about twenty years or so, to figure out that this also allowed them to have more machines per square foot and that the generated light could lead to longer working hours.

The same phenomenon is playing out today: services that could be automated are not yet being automated. Call center staff, for instance, are still forced to have long commutes to sweatshop-like operations yet we have digital phone systems. While a company may have incurred the cost of new phone technologies, it still may have virtually none of its true benefits, much like the earlier mentioned factories from the 1900s with electricity. In this current instance, digital phone systems are used exactly as we did old copper lines; there’s absolutely no benefit derived from the phones other than a reduction in the use of copper. However, digital phone systems allow us to re-think our operations entirely. Many call center workers today can work from home with a smartphone and a computer, and with very flexible hours getting rid of, for example, the dreaded lack of a social life that’s currently caused by long commutes to the call center facility (while a number of companies have already adopted this, adoption is not as high as it ought to be).

Another example is the credit rating systems used by banks in Kenya. They are outmoded. Banks use credit scoring technology to assess high interest loans issued via mobile phones, but the same technology isn’t applied to personal loans not requested via mobile, or corporate loans. The same technology can be used to figure out limits and rates for credit card, mortgages, and corporate loans, etc.; this doesn’t mean that the relationship manager should be supplanted but rather that they should be used for exceptional circumstances not yet catered for by the technology, and to build relationships. This would allow banks to both cut costs, improve revenue, and improve customer satisfaction. The lack of loan scoring in certain categories also explains the increase in non-performing loans issued to struggling but larger companies; the relationship managers don’t using scoring technology that may be able to detect changing fortunes in the operations of a company but rather they depend on traditional, less reliable means of lending. This is a huge gap that needs to be addressed and that would lead to better allocation of debt in the market.

There are so many cases like this, across the board, where technology is adopted and not put to its best use. This disconnect has been instructive to us at Node Africa; we realized we will never make a difference if we simply peddle our technology; our focus should not and can never be the technology itself. We have had to change focus and learn to figure out how to ensure that the technology works for your business, be it in terms of customer satisfaction, revenue growth, or cost savings.

This alignment with our customers’ requirements ensures that we always add value to the organizations we work with. We recognize that technology isn’t an end in itself if it doesn’t lead to that magical word: productivity. We don’t use our technology as a catchall cure for all tech-disease, but we try to see how best we can help businesses be more competitive in this rapidly changing era.